The apparatus is designed to determine the Stefan Boltzmann constant. The apparatus consists of a hemisphere fixed to a Bakelite plate, the outer surface of which forms the jacket to heat it.Hot water to heat the hemisphere is obtained form a hot water tank, which is fixed above the hemisphere. The copper test disc is introduced at the center of hemisphere. The temperatures of hemisphere and test disc are measured with the help of temperature Sensors.
Evaporation is a process for concentrating a solution by vaporizing part or all of the solvent. In most of the cases the solvent is water. The Pan Evaporator set-up is designed to study the fundamentals of evaporation process. The set-up consists of a jacketed pan evaporator made of stainless steel and an electrically heated steam generator of suitable capacity.To evaporate the solution in pan, steam is allowed to enter in the jacket using a control valve. Condensate is collected from steam trap for energy measurement. Tilting is done by a worm gear arrangement to empty the pan.
Condensation is a phase change heat transfer process occurring in many industrial applications, such as in steam power plants, refrigeration plants etc. Thus this is one of the important heat transfer process as present in mechanical and chemical engineering applications. The condensation of vapour on a surface is of two types: 1. Drop wise Condensation, 2. Film wise Condensation. This setup is designed for determining heat transfer co-efficient of two types of condensation and for visualization of these processes. It consists of a vertical frame. Condensation tubes are fitted inside compact glass cylinder. Steam generator is fitted at the backside of the cylinder. Steam comes directly from generator to the cylinder. Two valves are fitted to control flow rate of water in individual tubes. Digital Temperature Indicator monitors the temperatures. Pressure gauge and Rotameter can observe steam pressure and cold water flow rates respectively. A Digital temperature Controller is provided for controlling the temperature of Steam. Water level indicator is provided in steam generator. Condensate is measured by a measuring cylinder
Evaporation deals with the concentration of a non-volatile solute from a solution by the removal of required amount of volatile solvent. Usually the solvent is water. By vaporizing a part of the solvent, useful product i.e. the concentrated solution or thick liquor is produced and the vapour is discarded. Long tube evaporators are usually used for the concentration of foamy liquids.The set-up consists of stainless steel tubes surrounded by a stainless steel jacket and fitted with accumulator. Dilute solution is feed to tubes. Steam from a steam generator is supplied to shell to concentrate the dilute feed solution to a desired level. The jacket is fitted with a steam trap and the condensate is collected at the end of trap. The vapours of volatile solvent are condensed in a shell & tube type condenser and the balance non-volatile solute collected in the accumulator is recycled through the evaporator